For proper health management there are three important aspects to consider:

  • Biosecurity
  • Hygiene
  • vaccination

Biosecurity is security from disease causing organisms. Isolation of poultry operation is the single most important aspect of biosecurity. Sites should fenced and access restricted. Movement of people, feed, equipment or animals on the site should be controlled and limited to prevent the introduction of disease causing organisms.

Staff and visitors should be provided with, and should wear appropriate, clean protective clothing.
Single aged sites are preferable, so that recycling of pathogens is minimized. Multiage site have heavy disease challenge compared to single aged site.

The house should washable, well lit and well ventilated to avoid accumulation of dust and maintain proper hygiene. The entrance to the farm and to the poultry houses should have foot bath with a proper disinfectant at all times.

Cleaning and decontamination of poultry houses should be undertaken after depletion of every flock. After cleaning the farm should be rested for a minimum of 2 weeks before placement of a new flock. This is to prevent transmission of infection from one flock to the next.
Equipments should be cleaned and disinfected and farm workers and visited must wear protective clothing which is clean and disinfected.

A vaccination program to meet both the area and farm needs is essential for flock health management. It is also important to purchase chicks from a hatchery where the vaccination history of the parents is available as this determines the level of protection the chicks have acquired from the parents and the vaccination program to follow.

In Eastern Africa broilers should be vaccinated against infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease and Infectious Bursal disease (Gumboro) while layers should be vaccinated against Mareks, Infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease, Infectious Bursal disease, Fowl pox and Fowl Typhoid.

Below is a suggested vaccination program for broilers purchased from Kenchic.

7- 8 NCD + IB Live Eye drop
10- 11 Gumboro intermediate Drinking water
18- 19 Gumboro intermediate plus Drinking water
21- 22 NCD + IB Live Eye drop / drinking water

Below is a suggested vaccination program from layers purchased from Kenchic:

1 Mareks
NCD + IB live
Intramuscular injection
(Done at the hatchery)
10- 14 Gumboro intermediate Drinking water
15- 18 NCD + IB live Eye drop
24- 28 Gumboro intermediate plus Drinking water
28- 32 NCD + IB live Eye drop / Drinking water
Week 6-8 NCD Killed
NCD + IB Live
Fowl Typhoid
Intramuscular injection
Drinking water
Intramuscular injection
Week 8-10 Fowl pox
Fowl cholera
Wing stab
Subcutaneous injection
Week 12-14 Fowl typhoid Intramuscular injection
Week 16-18 NCD Killed Intramuscular injection